Pinene is available in two types: Alpha-pinene (sometimes denoted as α-pinene) and beta-pinene (β-pinene). The alpha variety delivers an aroma of pine needles and rosemary; beta-pinene smells like basil, dill, hops, and parsley. The alpha variety is significantly more common in hemp.
Pinene is produced by many plants other than hemp, including basil, cedar, conifer trees, dill, eucalyptus, oranges, parsley, pine trees, rosemary and dozens of other species.
In terms of wellness efficacy, pinene has been shown to deliver multiple efficacies. A few of these include bronchodilation, reduced inflammation, anticarcinogenic, and gastroprotective.
A 2015 study entitled “Gastroprotective Effect of Alpha-pinene and its Correlation with Antiulcerogenic Activity of Essential Oils Obtained from Hyptis Species” that was published in the journal Pharmacognosy Magazine investigated the efficacy of pinene in the treatment of ulcers and other gastrointestinal disorders.
Researchers report, “α-pinene pretreatment inhibited ethanol-induced gastric lesions, reduced volume and acidity of the gastric juice, and increased gastric wall mucus.” The researchers found pinene to be a good candidate for the treatment of ulcers. The study concluded, “Our data showed that the α-pinene exhibited significant antiulcerogenic activity and a great correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect of Hyptis species was also observed.”
A 2013 study entitled “Antioxidative, Anticancer, and Genotoxic Properties of α-pinene on N2a Neuroblastoma Cells” that was published in the journal Biologia found pinene to reduce the size of cancerous tumors. The researchers reported, “Statistical analysis of [research] results indicated significant decreases of the [cancer] cell proliferation rates in healthy neurons treated with α-pinene.”
Researchers concluded, “Our results suggest that pinene is of…therapeutic use as an anticancer agent.”